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The Technical Principle of PTA Balloon
Ⅰ. The technology of PTA balloon
Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) refers to the technique of percutaneously inserting guide wires, balloon catheters, stents and other devices to dilate and recanalize stenotic or occluded blood vessels. It can be used in systemic arteries, veins, artificial or transplanted blood vessels, and is the preferred method for clinical treatment of vascular stenosis and occlusive diseases.
Ⅱ. PTA Balloon Angioplasty
1. Indications: vascular stenosis or occlusion caused by different reasons, or preparatory for stent placement.
2. Relative contraindications: for limbs, the length of the occluded segment of the blood vessel is more than 10 cm, or calcified stenosis, or with peripheral small vessel disease; for coronary artery, multivessel disease, or there is fresh thrombus in the vascular lumen (3). within a month), or ulcerative vascular stenosis, etc.
3. Operation technique: the key is that the guide wire passes through the narrow segment. For complete occlusion, blood vessels need to be opened first. The diameter of the selected balloon should be equal to or slightly larger than the normal diameter at both ends of the stenosis by 1mm to 2mm, and the length of the PTA balloon should exceed the length of the stenosis by 1cm to 2cm. Anti-platelet aggregation drugs such as aspirin were used one day before the operation, 5000 U heparin was injected through the catheter during the operation, and aspirin was used continuously for 3 to 6 months after the operation.
4. Basic principle: The inner and middle layers of the blood vessels are damaged and torn to a limited extent, the tension of the tube wall is reduced, and the lumen is enlarged.
5. Efficacy: It depends on the location, nature, degree, age of the patient, underlying disease, and experience of the surgeon. The overall curative effect is comparable to that of surgery, but PTA is less traumatic, less complication, simple to operate, repeatable treatment, and equally effective for restenosis after surgery.
6. Complications: the incidence rate is 0.76% to 3.3%, usually hematoma at the puncture site, dissection or perforation of the vessel wall, ectopic embolism, etc.
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